狂犬病是一种严重的中枢神经系统病毒感染. The virus is usually passed to humans through the bite of a rabid animal. 偶尔, rabies can be transmitted if the saliva of an infected animal gets into a fresh scratch, 皮肤破裂, 或接触粘膜(眼睛), 口,鼻子).

In West Virginia, most cases of rabies occur in wild animals, such as raccoons and skunks. If you are bitten or scratched by a rabid or possibly rapid animal, wash the wound thoroughly with soap and warm water and immediately consult a physician and your local health

部门. 如动物无法进行观察或狂犬病测试, a series of post-exposure rabies vaccinations may be needed to prevent possible rabies infection.
如果你认为你接触过狂犬病, contact your local health 部门 and healthcare provider immediately. Animal bites are reportable to your local health 部门 WITHIN 24 HOURS according to West Virginia law.

预防狂犬病可采取以下措施:

避免接触不熟悉的动物.

  1. 从远处欣赏野生动物. 不处理或喂食野生动物.
  2. 把垃圾放在封闭的垃圾桶里.
  3. 永远不要领养或把野生动物带回家.
  4. Teach children not to handle any unfamiliar animals, wild or domestic, even if they appear friendly.
  5. Prevent bats from entering homes or other areas where they might come in contact with people or pets.
  6. 出国旅游时,要特别注意避免接触动物. 在世界的某些地区, 狗的狂犬病仍然是一个主要问题, 而且预防狂犬病的治疗可能很难获得.


做一个负责任的宠物主人

  1. 为所有猫和狗接种最新的狂犬病疫苗.
  2. 定期带你的宠物去看兽医.
  3. Maintain control of your pets by keeping them under direct supervision.
  4. Spay or neuter your pets to help reduce the number of unwanted pets that may not be properly cared for or vaccinated regularly.
  5. Call animal control to remove all stray animals from your neighborhood, 因为这些动物可能没有接种疫苗或生病.




拉克罗斯脑炎:
是最容易预防的疾病之一, La Crosse 脑炎 is carried by a species commonly called the "tree hole" mosquito. 这种蚊子在有水的树洞里繁殖, 在类似的积水区域,比如旧轮胎, 桶, 罐头或其他人造物品.

就像携带西尼罗河病毒的蚊子一样, eliminating places where disease-carrying mosquitoes can breed (such as filling in tree holes, and cleaning up man-made items where water could collect) is the best way to prevent cases of La Crosse 脑炎. In addition, trees with cavities or holes that hold water for a week or more can be a breeding site. 把洞口排干或用水泥填满. Symptoms develop within 3 weeks after the bite of an infected mosquito. 这些症状包括头痛, 发热, 睡意, 嗜睡, 恶心想吐, 呕吐, 定向障碍, 精神混乱, 在某些情况下还会发作.



西尼罗河病毒:
West Nile virus is transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito. 它广泛分布于非洲、南欧和西亚. It first appeared in the United States in 1999 and had spread to all of the New England states and south to North Carolina by 2000. 它已经在人类中引起疾病和死亡, 野生动物和家畜, 尤其是鸟和马. 在人类, it causes an influenza-like illness that may lead to aseptic meningitis, 脑炎, 和死亡, 尤其是50岁以上的人.

如何预防西尼罗病毒
蚊子在死水里产卵, 包括水坑, 停滞不前的沟渠, 还有旧轮胎之类的容器, 桶, 罐, 被忽视的游泳池, etc. 雨水渠、涵洞及集水区等. provide an outdoor resting place for the adult Culex pipiens mosquito (the common house mosquito) which is most commonly associated with West Nile virus. This mosquito commonly enters homes through unscreened windows or doors, or broken screens. 预防措施包括: 

  1. 确保门窗有严密的纱窗. 修理或更换家中所有破损的屏幕.
  2. 从你的财产中清除所有丢弃的轮胎.
  3. Dispose of tin 罐, plastic containers, ceramic pots, or similar water-holding containers.
  4. 确保屋顶排水沟排水正常. 在春季和秋季清理堵塞的排水沟.
  5. 对游泳池、室外桑拿和热水浴缸进行清洁和加氯处理. 如果不使用,保持空并盖上.
  6. 从泳池盖上排水.
  7. 每周至少换一次鸟浴的水.
  8. 翻转塑料水池、手推车等. 不使用时.
  9. 清除任何积聚在你财产上的积水.
  10. Remind or help neighbors to eliminate breeding sites on their properties.


驱虫剂
如果你晚上会在外面, 夜间和黎明时分, consider the use of an insect repellant containing 10% or less DEET (N, N-diethyl-methyl-meta-toluamide) for children and no more than 30% DEET for adults. 避蚊胺的有效时间约为4小时. Avoid prolonged or excessive use of DEET and use it sparingly to cover exposed skin and clothing. Do not use DEET on infants or pregnant women and do not apply DEET directly to children. 把它涂在自己的手上,然后涂在孩子身上. 一定要按照制造商的说明使用避蚊胺. 记住维生素B, 超声设备, incense and bug zappers have not been shown to be effective in preventing mosquito bites. Community-wide mosquito spraying is also not recommended by the local health 部门 due to its high cost and temporary effect.

人类的症状
轻微感染很常见,包括发烧, 头疼, 身体疼痛, 常伴有皮疹和淋巴腺肿大. 头疼, 高烧, 脖子僵硬, 昏迷, 定向障碍, 昏迷, 震动, 偶尔抽搐, 瘫痪标志着更严重的感染. 在一些个体中, 尤其是老年人, West Nile virus can cause serious disease that affects brain tissue. At its most serious, it can cause permanent brain damage and can be fatal.




莱姆病:
以下信息摘自 西弗吉尼亚州流行病学和预防服务办公室:

Lyme disease is a bacterial infection caused by bites from infected blacklegged (deer) ticks. Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in the United States and West Virginia. Symptoms generally begin 3 to 30 days after the tick bite and include 发热 and an expanding red rash at the site of the tick bite. 如果不及早用抗生素治疗, Lyme disease can progress over weeks to years to cause recurrent arthritis and neurological complications.

Most cases of Lyme disease are reported in the northeastern and Midwestern regions of the United States. The number of Lyme disease cases reported among West Virginia residents has increased over the last few years.




Zika病毒:
以下信息摘自 西弗吉尼亚州流行病学和预防服务办公室:

​Zika is a disease that is spread by mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti). 这些蚊子还传播基孔肯雅热和登革热. Symptoms of Zika include 发热, rash, joint pain, and redness of the eyes. 肌肉疼痛和头痛也会发生. 这些症状通常会持续几天到一周. 寨卡病毒感染的住院和死亡并不常见. 目前在美国和西弗吉尼亚州, Zika is associated with travel to countries where transmission is being reported (e.g. 加勒比、中美洲和南美洲的国家). 

就像基孔肯雅热和登革热一样, no vaccines or medications are available to prevent or treat Zika virus. 多休息,多喝水,多服药.g. Tylenol) are recommended to treat the symptoms associated with the virus. It also important to avoid mosquitoes during the first week of illness since infections can be spread when a mosquito bites an infected person then bites another person who was not previously infected. Aedes albopictus, a mosquito species found in West Virginia, can transmit Zika.

Pregnant women in any trimester are advised not to travel to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission due to poor pregnancy outcomes in babies of infected mothers. 头小畸型, 婴儿出生时头部比正常情况小的情况, 在巴西和其他一些国家有报道吗. 寨卡病毒的性传播也有报道.


 












狂犬病及病媒资讯

狂犬病:
以下信息摘自 西弗吉尼亚州流行病学和预防服务办公室:

狂犬病是一种严重的中枢神经系统病毒感染. The virus is usually passed to humans through the bite of a rabid animal. 偶尔, rabies can be transmitted if the saliva of an infected animal gets into a fresh scratch, 皮肤破裂, 或接触粘膜(眼睛), 口,鼻子).

环境服务

卫生部门